Friday, December 30th, 2016



eye-cr

This past year we did S.T.E.M. week as one of our Hooked on Horsessm themes for summer camp. For Science day, we focused on genetics. Why genetics if we are not a breeding facility?

As a horse owner, and especially since we only use one breed at our facility, I felt it is important that our riders understand that the horse they may choose when they are ready to purchase their first horse, needs to be vetted beyond the typical vet check. They need to look at their horse’s genetics and what may possibly be lurking.

As the ability to isolate genes and track diseases improves so is the possibility of being able to determine the future health of a horse. Since we only have Haflinger horses on our facility, I will discuss their potential diseases. Bear in mind that these and others are present in many other horse breeds.

Equine Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (EPSM, PSSM, EPSSM)

EPSM is a metabolic disorder. Horses are unable to keep their muscles working properly on what we consider “normal” horse diets. The symptoms include tying up, or weakness in the hind limbs. Some owners feel their horse is lazy because part way through the ride or lesson the horse slows down and has a hard time moving. This is because the horse cannot store, and therefore get muscle energy from carbohydrates.

This disorder is across all breeds of horses. Research shows that about two-thirds of draft type horses and one-third of light horse breeds are susceptible to EPSM. Often the best built, best temperament, best performing horses are diagnosed with it. This is a hereditary disorder that we may be inadvertently breeding into our stock.

It is treatable with proper diet. The horse is fed fat in the form of oil instead of the carbohydrates froun in grain. Any pelleted food is high in fat and does not contain carbohydrates. If not treated, this disorder may result in death.

In 2007 we were stunned when a horse that we felt was healthy succumbed to this disease within 48 hours. Once it was identified as her cause of death, we had the rest of our herd of 10 horses tested for the disorder. At that time the only way to test was by performing a muscle biopsy. The results showed that four of our horses also had this disease. There is now a DNA test that can be done using the hair root from the horse’s tail to determine if the horse has this disorder.

Squamous cell carcinoma

This form of eye cancer is the second most common type of tumor in horses and the most frequent eye tumor. The tumor typically develops in non-pigmented areas of the skin and the eye. It is frequently found in Appaloosas and color-dilute breeds such as Belgians and Haflingers.

Early symptoms are a reddening, roughening or ulcerating area. Treatment involves surgically removing the tumor through one of many means. Chemotherapy may also be an option. If left untreated the tumor can spread behind the eye, into the sinuses, and ultimately the brain.

Once treated, the horse needs to wear an ultra-protective fly mask during the peak sunlight hours since exposure to the sun’s ultra-violet rays can trigger this disease.

In 2014 a tumor appeared in one of our horse’s eye. We had it removed and, because we did not use the horse for our program, we sold him with full disclosure. This spring we discovered a smaller tumor in the eye of two of our horses. We had the tumor removed and treated both horses with chemo for one month. We keep fly masks on both horses during the day. To date, both are doing well.

The interesting aspect was that these horses were all full brother/sisters. All three of them developed squamous cell carcinoma in the right eye. Coincidence or hereditary?

The University of California, Davis has recently developed a DNA test to determine if a horse is susceptible to squamous cell carcinoma. We will definitely be taking advantage of this test and, should any other horses show susceptibility, they will also be sporting fly masks all year round.

Seeing that both of these diseases, along with many others, are hereditary, we can’t help but urge breeders to have their horses tested, then, decide whether breeding the horse is the right thing to do.

EPSM only requires ONE of the parents to have the disorder to pass it on to an offspring. With squamous cell carcinoma, breeding horses even if one is heterozygote (R/N), risks producing horses that can be affected with this disease.

For us, we already test any horse that we acquire for EPSM. The test for squamous cell carcinoma will now be added to the vet check list.

Linda Watson-Call is the owner and head riding instructor at Pretty Pony Pastures. Visit the website for details on all the lessons and activities at this facility.
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Once the rider masters the open rein, we move to the direct rein.

The direct rein takes a little more skill to master. Unlike the open rein, the direct rein uses both hands and both legs to cue the horse to turn.

In this article, we will focus on the hands and reins, but remember, the legs play an important part so we will discuss that as well.

direct rein 1

We start by asking the rider to take the hand in the direction of the turn and move it to their back pocket and look toward the horse’s tail. This is very effective for our young riders because their legs hardly reach down to the horse! What this does is stabilize their leg at the girth and as they turn, their outer leg moves behind the girth. The horse moves in the direction of the rein movement.

The hardest part of this, is the release that is needed from the outside hand. If you move your inside hand in the direction that you want to turn the horse, and pull back with the outside rein, the horse will not turn and will stop. So, the outside hand needs to move forward slightly to give the horse the freedom to turn.

direct rein 2

As the riders progress, they can use less effort in the direct rein and presses back to the outer thigh. Notice that the outside hand and rein are released and, in this case, the rein is supporting the horse’s outer neck and shoulder.

When the rider starts to move her weight to the appropriate seat bone in the saddle, the horse will make the turn with less and less rein movement. At some point, the movement to turn the horse may only need a squeeze back from the rein and the shift in weight in the saddle.

In any case, the inner leg is always at the girth and the outside leg is just behind the girth.

One of the biggest errors that I see is when the horse responds with only slight pressure from the rider and the rider starts to move the rein toward the pommel of the saddle. This movement must be performed with coordinated leg aids. We’ll discuss this in the post about indirect reins.

Linda Watson-Call is the owner and head riding instructor at Pretty Pony Pastures. Visit the website for details on all the lessons and activities at this facility.

covershot

We’ve entered a new era at our farm – I’ve been promising this for years, yes, years. And this year we are doing it!

One aspect of our lessons is about the horse. You can call it horsemanship – although that has several different meanings, or stewardship, or just plain knowing more about horses that riding.

We’ve always taught things like – grooming, safety, parts of the horse, horse nutrition, etc. as part of our lessons, in our scout events, and in the Hooked on Horsessm summer program. Now, everyone, whether they ride here or not, can participate in our virtual learning center and access our videos and interactive programs.

Our first interactive program was Part of the Horse. We have had rave reviews from several of parents who said their child loves to play this program.

Our second was Daily Grooming. Yes, there is a difference between the way you groom your horse every day and how you would groom your horse for a show. Show Grooming is on the list – probably this summer.

Daily Grooming is part of our Parent Boot Campsm program. Every spring and fall we invite the parents of new riders to attend our Parent Boot Campsm to learn more about horses, their care, and what we expect their rider to do. Many times schedules don’t allow for parents to attend and we’ve been asked if we could do a video. So, here is an interactive program on grooming for both parents, riders, and new horse owners where ever they may be. This will be followed by Horse Safety in and around the Barn, Saddling Your Horse, and How to Lead (Your Horse, of Course).

We will also show different aspects of how we train and desensitize our horses before they are put into our programs.

Join us – we will post our releases here, on our blog, and on our website.

Linda Watson is the owner and head riding instructor at Pretty Pony Pastures. Visit the website for details on all the lessons and activities at this facility.

One of the fun things to do with horses is to teach them tricks. So at our March Golden Pony Club we did that.

There are some tricks that we would never teach our horses for safety reasons – like rearing or kissing on the lips. But there are so many others that are fun and very teachable. All tricks are actions that a horse will normally do. So the only thing that is tricky is getting the horse to do the action on command.

To really teach a trick, you need to repeat the action over and over a period of days. Since our club only meets for two hours, each member did the action with the horse three times. Rewards are also important. We give a small carrot as a reward if the horse at least “tries” to do the action.
We started with the one trick that everyone loves to see – Smiling! This is a relatively simple trick. The horse will naturally raise its upper lip to get a better smell of its surroundings. It will also lift the lip when it’s in pain. Lifting the lip is called flehmen (flay’-mon).

Smile Leslie_2 r25r50We teach it one of two ways: either by tickling the nose with a string – baling twine works just fine, or dipping the baling twine in a liquid that has a strong scent to it – like a perfume. We tried it both ways during our session and got some results.

 

 

Hug Buttercup_1 r25r50

The second trick was teaching the horse to give a hug. This one was a little more difficult for the girls. You need to hold the treat – in this case a carrot on a Frisbee – behind your back so the horse looks over your shoulder to get it. The girls arms a much shorter than an adults, so they had the treat closer to their waist and the horse simply went behind them to get the reward. We’ll have to work on this one a little more.

The last trick was shaking hands/hooves. This is on my questionable trick list, but it is a fun one, too. I place it on the questionable list because we don’t want to teach the horse to paw or strike forward with a hoof, but the horses that I taught it too, never picked up either habit, so I will teach it.

 

Shake Leslie_1 r25r50The cue word is “shake” and we start by putting a lead line around the fetlock and on the cue “shake” put some pressure on the rope to encourage the horse to pick up the hoof. If the horse shift weight to the other hoof and just moves the hoof that we want lifted, we reward to the horse. This trick takes longer to teach than the other tricks, but, like any trick, everyone enjoys seeing the horse “shake” hands/hooves.

To see more pictures of teaching the horses tricks go to our Facebook page.

 

Linda Watson is the owner and head riding instructor at Pretty Pony Pastures. Visit the website for details on all of the lessons and activities at this facility.

 


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Friday was our first activity of the Golden Pony Club. What a great experience this was for those who participated. The theme was games – so we played Egg and Spoon, Flag and Sand, and Keyhole.

Egg and spoon game

Playing egg and spoon game

The evening was complicated by having the riders select a horse card to determine which horse she would ride. Oh, my! I’m not riding the horse I ride for lessons? Was the cry. No, you will choose a horse for each game and you cannot ride the same horse twice tonight. The gasps were quite audible. What if I get a horse I never rode before? Well, it happened and they got those horses.

Funny thing, the riders were so focused on the game that the horse was immaterial! Poppie, our most challenging lesson horse was ridden by the smallest riders. I’m not sure if they ever rode Poppie before, but Friday night, they did and they did a good job. Some of them even said they’d ride Poppie for a lesson!

One of our most advanced riders decided that she was not cut out for Gymkhana since she dq’d at least once in each game!

They rode for over two hours, but when I said game night was over, the girls were surprised that it ended so soon. I think every girl wanted to know if we could do this next Friday. Nothing like a good evening playing with horses!

Flag and Sand Game

Putting the flag in the holder

Keyhole Game

Turning Poppie in the keyhole

More pictures